From David Stringer, the AP: RUSI’s examination also concluded that special forces had played a key role in the Libya conflict, despite the fact the U.N. resolution ruled out the deployment of foreign ground troops.
European and former U.S. officials confirmed special forces from Western and Middle Eastern nations carried out operations, though Britain and France have declined to confirm publicly that their troops were involved.
"The high profile air campaign in support of rebels was not undertaken in isolation of efforts on the ground, nor could it have guaranteed the success of rebel attempts to advance. Special forces activity was a vital enabler," Mark Phillips, RUSI’s military and intelligence research fellow, wrote in the report.
RUSI estimates France and Britain each had between 10 and 40 special force soldiers in Libya to help liaise with rebels and guide airstrikes, while Egypt deployed around 100 and Qatar and Jordan both supplied 20. Italy sent about 10 elite troops and Bulgaria about 12, it claimed. (photo: eliteukforces.info)