* CDU/CSU – Against Turkey joining the EU. Germany should continue its participation in NATO’s mission in Afghanistan.

* SPD – Should leave open the possibility of Turkey joining the EU. Chancellor candidate Frank-Walter Steinmeier has said Germany should start thinking about when to pull its troops out of Afghanistan.* FDP – Stress the need for global disarmament and back the Afghanistan mission but some members have called for a pullout plan for German soldiers.

* GREENS – Have moved away from their pacifist roots and broadly back the Afghanistan mission. Support Turkey’s EU bid and favor tough line on human rights with Russia and China.

* LEFT PARTY – Against German troops serving in foreign combat missions and wants them out of Afghanistan.” (photo: Deutsche Welle)