The Workshop on China and the World Economy, sponsored by the Atlantic Council of the United States and the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, U.S. Department of State, convened December 7, 2005, and January 9, 2006, at the Atlantic Council. The conference was chaired by Franklin D. Kramer of the Atlantic Council. Robert A. Kapp of Robert A. Kapp & Associates, Inc. served as rapporteur. The workshop was structured around “an examination of interpretive dichotomies,” which provided the titles of the successive sessions. Banning Garrett of the Atlantic Council organized the program, and Cora Foley of the State Department offered welcoming remarks. The following is a summary of the main themes and comments raised during the two day workshop.