On June 24, Robert Manning was quoted in a Voice of America Korea article about North Korea’s relationship with China and its implications on negotiations with the United States. Manning spoke on the importance of understanding North Korea’s dependence on China for its basic survival during a time of domestic scarcity.

“For North Korea, for starters, China is about survival. Without 90% of their trade, a lot of their oil and fertilizer, and other essentials come through China. And some of it is not being sold on a commercial basis. So for N Korea, it’s really essential to have some kind of working relationship with China.”

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