Africa Center Director J. Peter Pham is quoted by US News and World Report on Russian energy company Gazprom has so far evaded sanctions:

“You’ve got this complex net running across Europe, which is why, I think, the Europeans were less willing to go along [with sanctions against Gazprom],” says J. Peter Pham, director of the Africa Center at the Atlantic Council. “They’re active in about roughly two dozen countries. They’re all over.” 

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“Even countries that are, shall we say, having quarrels going with the Russian Federation on various things, like Moldova, Gazprom, through a subsidiary, owns 50 percent of Moldovagaz,” says Pham, referring to Moldova’s main distributor of natural gas. “It makes things much more complicated.”

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