For decades, stability and security in Afghanistan has presented a significant national security threat for the region’s two nuclear powers, India and Pakistan. Afghanistan has at times served as a springboard for regional terrorism, which has reared its head in the Kashmir region and elsewhere. So what does the fall of Kabul mean for these nuclear-armed rivals? India has lost an ally, and for Pakistan the answer is… complicated.

On this episode of Fast Thinking, Atlantic Council South Asia Center Director Irfan Nooruddin sits down with Harris Samad to talk about the history at play, whether the two countries will be able to align in their approach with the new regime, and if the Taliban’s success will embolden other extremist groups in the region.

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The South Asia Center serves as the Atlantic Council’s focal point for work on the region as well as relations between these countries, neighboring regions, Europe, and the United States.