James Shires was a nonresident senior fellow at the Atlantic Council’s Cyber Statecraft Initiative. He is an assistant professor at the Institute for Security and Global Affairs, University of Leiden and a nonresident research fellow with the Cyber Project at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School. He is also a research affiliate with the Centre for Technology and Global Affairs at the Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Oxford. He holds a DPhil in International Relations from the University of Oxford, an MSc from Birkbeck College, University of London and a BA from the University of Cambridge. His research examines cybersecurity in the Middle East, focusing on the interaction between threats to individuals, states and organizations, new regional dynamics, and the development of cybersecurity expertise. He has written widely on cybersecurity and international politics, and has won awards for his research from bodies such as the Hague Program on Cyber Norms, the German Marshall Fund, and the International Institute for Strategic Studies.