Atlantic Council

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Mrs. Mimi Kodheli Addresses Strategy Session at the Atlantic Council


Albanian Defense Minister Mimi Kodheli spoke to an invited audience on October 28 at a policy strategy session hosted by the Council's Brent Scowcroft Center on International Security. Here is the text of her address:

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Technological advancements have led to an energy revolution in the United States.

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Technological advancements in a combination of computer-aided horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have led to an energy revolution in the United States. The United States is set to surpass Saudi Arabia as the largest producer of oil by 2017 and could become a net exporter by 2030. This shale gas revolution has already had a profound impact on the global energy landscape, according to Brent Scowcroft Center on International Security Senior Fellow Robert A. Manning.

In The Shale Revolution and the New Geopolitics of Energy, Manning explains that the shale revolution affects everything from the makeup of the global energy market to America’s core strategic interests abroad. This new glut of supply has completely changed the conversation on energy supplies from one of peak supply to one of peak demand and has completely shifted the center of oil production from the Middle East to the western hemisphere. While oil prices will always be vulnerable to global instability, Manning foresees a far different geopolitical situation, where America has more leverage and independence in its foreign policy. For example, Asia’s booming demand for energy will require those nations (and China in particular) to share the burden of keeping shipping lanes secure. Manning recommends that the US embrace this revolution head on, working with all stakeholders to establish strong safety standards and best practices, and reforming institutions such as the International Energy Agency to reflect this fast-approaching new reality.

How would both the United States and Cuba attending the Summit of the Americas impact their relationship?

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For the past two decades, the Summit of the Americas has convened the western hemisphere’s heads of state without the participation of Cuba. That is likely about to change. In April 2015, Panama will host the next summit. An invitation will be extended to the Cuban government.

The United States has long opposed Cuba’s participation in the summit—and President Obama has yet to confirm the United States’ attendance—but all signs indicate that both he and President Raúl Castro will be there. In December 2013, they briefly shook hands at the funeral of former South African President Nelson Mandela. That encounter caused a lot of commotion and no policy change. Will the summit be different?

This meeting is ripe with opportunities for the countries to attack each other. The United States is pushing to add a civil society component to the agenda that puts democracy front and center. Cuba could use the economic discussions to highlight the damage caused by the US trade embargo. But the summit could also present an opportunity to implement policy options that reduce tensions and open the door for further cooperation.

In this month’s Spotlight we ask: How would both the United States and Cuba attending the Summit of the Americas impact their relationship?

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The final results of parliamentary elections had yet to be announced, but Rachid Ghannouchi, head of Tunisia's moderate Muslim Ennahda party, called the head of a secular alliance, Nidaa Tounes, on Monday to congratulate him on what appeared to be a decisive secularist victory.

Once again, Tunisia – the country where the Arab spring began in late 2010 – is showing other countries how post-authoritarian politics should be played.

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In a new Atlantic Council issue brief titled “Reforming Tunisia’s Troubled Security Sector,” Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East nonresident fellow and security sector reform activist Bassem Bouguerra explains the barriers to reforming the North African country’s troubled security apparatus and offers possible paths forward for reform.
 
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What Does Dilma Rousseff's Victory Mean for Brazil's Future?

Brazil's 2014 presidential election was the tightest race since the 1989 contest between Fernando Collor de Mello and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. President Dilma Rousseff of the Workers' Party (PT) and Governor Aécio Neves of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) had polled neck-and-neck throughout the second-round campaign. In the end, Rousseff secured a victory of 51.6 percent of the vote versus 48.4 percent for challenger Aécio Neves.

From now until President Rousseff takes office for her second term on January 1, 2015, three themes will dominate the agenda: the ability to govern (including overcoming corruption and impunity); economic adjustments; and social demands from the rising middle class and urban groups behind last year's protests.

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Among the arguments marshaled by those wary of a nuclear agreement with Iran is that past efforts to negotiate away North Korea's nuclear weapons program failed.

Iran's regime, they argue, is just as untrustworthy as North Korea's and what's more, Wendy Sherman, the chief U.S. negotiator with Iran, was also involved in talks with the North Koreans under the Bill Clinton administration and thus is somehow inherently suspect.

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It was the sort of vote that's still hard to imagine taking place in the U.S. Congress: an overwhelming if non-binding endorsement of an independent Palestinian state by the British House of Commons.

The 274-12 vote on Monday was another indication that much of the world is losing patience with the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and wants a resolution that obliges Israel to cede territory to the Palestinian Authority (PA) of Mahmoud Abbas.

Another signal came a day earlier in Cairo when 50 nations and international organizations pledged $5 billion to rebuild Gaza. Several donors, including Norway, said this had to be the last time they paid to reconstruct a tiny enclave that has repeatedly been pummeled by Israel as punishment for shooting rockets onto Israeli territory.

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LIKE THE majority of his modern predecessors, President Obama has looked to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia as the regions where America's vital interests are most often engaged. This year is no different as the United States copes with a lethal combination of challenges from the metastasizing Iraq-Syria civil war to Russian aggression in Ukraine, Chinese adventurism in Asia, and the climate and Ebola crises.

While these threats won't go away anytime soon, there is better news for Americans closer to home in the form of a strategic opportunity right in our own backyard. In an unusually far-sighted report issued last week, two of our country's most impressive global strategists — David Petraeus, former CIA director and head of US Central Command, and former World Bank President Bob Zoellick — make a compelling case that Americans should work with Mexico and Canada to build a new North American partnership for the future. Issued by the Council on Foreign Relations (where I serve on the board of directors), the report suggests we have the opportunity to realize a new era of growth and prosperity for the nearly 500 million people who live in our three countries.

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Does the sixty-five-year-old alliance still matter today? We asked a select group of future transatlantic leaders from NATO member and partner Nations to weigh in.

In advance of the 2014 NATO Summit in Wales, United Kingdom, the Atlantic Council asked a select group of future leaders (ages twenty-five to thirty-five) in NATO member and partner countries about the role of the Alliance today. CEOs, elected officials, civil society leaders, PhD researchers, legislative staff, veterans, and active duty military officers were among the respondents.

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