Michael John Williams is a nonresident senior fellow with the Scowcroft Center’s Transatlantic Security Initiative and clinical professor of International Relations and director of the International Relations Program at New York University. He was a Stephen M. Kellen term-member of the Council on Foreign Relations and has held a Robert Bosch Fellowship in Germany, a visiting fellowship at the Rothermere American Institute at the University of Oxford & Nuffield College, Oxford, and a DAAD fellowship at the Bundeswehr Center for Military History and Social Science in Potsdam, Germany. During his time as a Bosch Fellow, he was a special advisor to the parliamentary state secretary at the Germany Ministry of Defense and was later detailed to the Advanced Concept Division at Airbus Military. Some of Williams’s most recent publications include Science, Law, and Liberalism in the American Way of War: The Quest for Humanity in Conflict (2015), “The Enduring Culture of Restraint in Modern Germany: German Mentalités on the Use of Force as Portrayed in Contemporary Television Narratives” in German Politics (2019), “NATO and the Risk Society: Modes of Alliance Representation since 1991” in Theorising NATO: New Perspectives on the Atlantic Alliance (Webber & Hyde-Price, 2016), “In the Line of Fire: NATO-NGO Relations from Bosnia to Afghanistan” in NATO’s Post-Cold War Politics (Mayer 2014), “The Afghan War, 2001-2012” in the Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History (2012) and “Special Relationships in Flux: Brexit and the Future of the US-EU and US-UK Relationships (International Affairs, May 2016) Before NYU, Williams was reader in International Relations at the University of London. From 2006 to 2008 Williams was director of the Transatlantic Security Program at the Royal United Services Institute for Defense and Security Studies (RUSI) in London. From 2004 to 2006 he was program officer for the Leverhulme Program on the Changing Character of War at the University of Oxford. He has consulted for policymakers in the United States, Canada, and Europe on various international security issues. Educated at the universities of Delaware, Hamburg, Bayreuth, Bath, Berlin, and Moscow he earned his doctorate at the London School of Economics & Political Science.