On June 4, Forward Defense Assistant Director Mark J. Massa was interviewed in a video by CNBC titled “Why submarines in the US Navy are getting an expensive update.” In this interview, Massa discussed the crucial role that submarines play in US nuclear deterrence policy and great-power competition.

[T]echnology can rapidly change–so we need to build a nuclear force [and] design our nuclear force to last for decades.

Mark J. Massa
Forward Defense

Forward Defense, housed within the Scowcroft Center for Strategy and Security, generates ideas and connects stakeholders in the defense ecosystem to promote an enduring military advantage for the United States, its allies, and partners. Our work identifies the defense strategies, capabilities, and resources the United States needs to deter and, if necessary, prevail in future conflict.

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