On June 4, Forward Defense Assistant Director Mark J. Massa was interviewed in a video by CNBC titled “Why submarines in the US Navy are getting an expensive update.” In this interview, Massa discussed the crucial role that submarines play in US nuclear deterrence policy and great-power competition.

[T]echnology can rapidly change–so we need to build a nuclear force [and] design our nuclear force to last for decades.

Mark J. Massa
Forward Defense

Forward Defense, housed within the Scowcroft Center for Strategy and Security, shapes the debate around the greatest military challenges facing the United States and its allies, and creates forward-looking assessments of the trends, technologies, and concepts that will define the future of warfare.

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