On March 29, Manning was interviewed by Voice of America about North Korea’s procurement of components for missiles and the need to crack down on their international sourcing of materials.

“Robert Manning, a senior fellow at the Atlantic Council, also told VOA that the possibility of North Korea’s further provocations and the resumption of nuclear tests is good enough.

“‘We’re looking at the pattern of Pyeongyang…and I think it’s quite possible. There are reports that the initial test was Hwa-sung 15, not 17. So that suggests the 17 is still untested. And therefore, it’s likely that at some point, they will want to test that one as well. There are reports of construction work going on at their nuclear tests site. And so it wouldn’t be shocking if they were considering a nuclear test. The problem is that he’s is closing of the borders and self seclusion. Even more sanctions may not have much of an impact on his behavior.'” [translated from Korean]

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