Reports

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Completing Europe: Gas Interconnections in Central and Southeastern Europe—An Update, written by John Roberts, a nonresident senior fellow at the Atlantic Council’s Dinu Patriciu Eurasia and Global Energy Centers, takes into account the significant steps taken in the year following the publishing of the Atlantic Council’s Completing Europe—From the North-South Corridor to Energy, Transportation, and Telecommunications Union. Roberts’ latest piece “focuses on progress made in the development of gas interconnectors, the single most important element in the creation of an effective energy union and in assuring energy security for Europe.”

As David Koranyi, co-director of the Completing Europe Report and director of the Atlantic Council’s Eurasian Energy Futures Initiative, and Ian Brzezinski, co-director of the Completing Europe Report and senior fellow at the Atlantic Council’s Brent Scowcroft Center, state in the foreword, achieving a single European market “will require the development of infrastructure networks that bind together the economies of Central and Southeastern Europe with the rest of European Union.”

 

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While numerous American public, private, philanthropic, scientific, and academic organizations are addressing water challenges the world over, there is no explicit strategy binding their diverse activities together into a coherent whole. This is an unfortunate situation, as the United States has considerable strengths, expertise and influence in the water space.

 

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“The Eastern Mediterranean’s hydrocarbon discoveries have massive consequences for the region, even though when considered on a global scale they are relatively small,” writes David Koranyi in the foreword to the Atlantic Council report, Hydrocarbon Developments in the Eastern Mediterranean. This report offers an important examination of the technical and geopolitical obstacles to and opportunities for creating a vibrant hydrocarbon market in the Eastern Mediterranean. 

 

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The Warsaw Summit was a watershed moment for the NATO Alliance. The twenty-eight member states had a unique opportunity to demonstrate NATO’s enduring relevance and ability to defend Europe and the transatlantic area by laying down a marker to build strong and effective conventional and nuclear deterrence. Poland, in particular, should play an important role in NATO’s adaptation to a new and challenging security environment.  

 

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Transformations in Brazil's energy sector could be critical to rebooting the broader economy. Today, with state-owned Petrobras still reeling from political scandal, one development welcomed by investors is a bill gaining steam in Congress to open offshore oil discoveries to greater private investment. Is this the beginning of more changes to come? What should be other top energy priorities for the interim government, and how does this fit into the larger economic picture?

 

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“Since the 1990s, a number of separatist movements and conflicts have challenged the borders of the states of the former Soviet Union and created quasi-independent territories under Russian influence and control,” states Agnia Grigas, a senior nonresident fellow at the Atlantic Council’s Dinu Patriciu Eurasia Center, in the opening of her new report, Frozen Conflicts: A Tool Kit for US Policymakers. In the report, Grigas differentiates between Moscow’s policies toward the breakaway regions of the 1990s, the 2008 Russo-Georgian War, and the annexation of Ukraine’s Crimean peninsula and subsequent war in eastern Ukraine.

 

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“During the Cold War, we were facing nuclear war if we screwed up. That was an incentive to get it right, to stay ahead of developments. Today, we have no strategy that covers the entire world – the changes that are coming. And there’s a lot of change going. For 500 years, we lived under Westphalian nation-state systems. But globalization has eroded borders. For the first time this world’s people are politicized, interconnected by technology. The nature of power is changing. The nature of international cooperation is changing. The nature of conflict is changing. We’re not evolving well to adapt. This world is not as dangerous as that during the Cold War, but it is much more complicated.”

—Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft, USAF (Ret.)
9th and 17th United States Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs

 

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“As technologies further improve the world’s ability to access and operate in space, the new administration will need to rethink how the United States wants to act alongside its fellow nations...This Atlantic Council Strategy Paper does a great job initiating this important conversation at a very important time.”
– James E. Cartwright, former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff


There are growing risks and threats to US satellites, civilian and military alike, and challenges to stated US goals in space. The question for the new administration, however, is whether hegemonic means to address those challenges are likely to achieve US goals. It is this paper’s assertion that they are not. Instead, a rebalancing of means used to address US goals in space is now necessary, based on a comprehensive assessment of the strategic space environment through the next ten to twenty years, toward ensuring that the ways and means being pursued to address those goals are in alignment. This assessment must extend beyond the Pentagon as well, to include the rapidly expanding cast of governmental and nongovernmental space actors. In particular, industry representatives should be brought into a process of dialogue with the national space security community to discuss priorities and concerns.

 

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As NATO leaders prepare to meet in Warsaw this July, the Alliance faces the greatest threats to peace and security in Europe since the end of the Cold War. The most pressing, fundamental challenges include a revanchist Russia, eroding stability in the greater Middle East, a weakened European Union, and uncertain American and European leadership.

 

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Five years after the 2011 revolution, Egypt’s economy is floundering and remains far from recovery. Successive Egyptian governments have struggled to develop a vision for a new economic model for Egypt, while simultaneously implementing populist policies to appease the immediate demand of the public. In “The Economic Decline of Egypt after the 2011 Uprising,” authors Mohsin Khan and Elissa Miller examine the trajectory of Egypt’s economy since 2011 and what the current Egyptian government should do to arrest the economy’s downward slide.

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