Issue Briefs

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The past decade has witnessed a marked increase in Russian aggression and assertiveness. Many Eastern European nations, the Baltic States in particular, have recognized this disturbing and fundamental change in the European security environment and are responding both nationally and multilaterally.

 

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Over the last decade, cyber threats have continued to advance in both depth and breadth with the expansion of exploitation, disruption, and destruction activities. In warfighting, as demonstrated in conflicts in Crimea, Syria, and Iraq, cyber capabilities are increasingly being integrated as part of adversarial attack strategies. Cyber vulnerabilities are one of NATO’s and its member-states’ most significant challenges and continue to undercut the Alliance’s deterrent and defense capabilities. In “Cyber, Extended Deterrence, and NATO,” Franklin D. Kramer, Robert J. Butler, and Catherine Lotrionte set forth an approach for cyber extended deterrence, focusing on a potential conflict involving NATO. The paper's recommendations aim to strengthen NATO’s cyber capabilities and incorporate them into wider Alliance defense strategies, laying out multinational and intergovernmental steps and exploring the role of the private sector.

 

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In the aftermath of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), a major question has been whether the landmark nuclear deal would have any impact on Iran’s other policies, including its record on human rights. While US President Barack Obama’s administration stressed that in negotiating the JCPOA its focus was on preventing Iran from developing nuclear weapons, there was an unstated hope that Iran’s reintegration into the global economy as a result of the deal would also promote a less repressive Islamic Republic.

 

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Across Africa, leaders are tinkering with term limits and prolonging their tenures. In an increasingly unstable Central African region, Joseph Kabila, President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), appears poised to be the next African leader to sidestep the relinquishing of power and the election of his successor, constitutionally mandated for November 2016. A new Atlantic Council study by Dr. Pierre Englebert, "Congo Blues: Scoring Kabila’s Rule," examines Kabila’s leadership of sub-Saharan Africa’s largest country and traces the contours of the ineptitude, massive corruption, and frequent resort to violence in the face of criticism that characterize his decade and a half in power.

 

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When NATO leaders convene for the Warsaw summit this July, their agenda will be dominated by external threats—from an aggressive Russia, to the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), to the refugee crisis that has spread from the Middle East and North Africa throughout Europe. Yet an equally important issue, though not explicitly on the agenda, will be the internal health of the Alliance. NATO faces unprecedented challenges to its values, cohesion, and effectiveness, all integral to dealing with these external threats.

 

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The two major drivers of Europe’s newly insecure strategic environment both have reflections in the maritime domain: Russia’s military assertiveness is often expressed above, on, or under the sea; and the instability of the Middle East and North Africa spreads turbulence and disorder around the Mediterranean’s southern rim.

 

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Diane Francis’ new issue brief, “Stolen Future,” exposes the depth and breadth of the economic devastation a corruption fueled oligarchy has wrought in Ukraine. In the wake of the Euromaidan Revolution, Ukraine has the opportunity to break the cycle of wealth appropriation which has plagued both Russia and Ukraine since the collapse of the Soviet Union. However, due to the lingering influence of oligarchy, reforms have been slow coming in some sectors, and as Francis states, “the tide will only turn in favor of Ukraine if its oligarchy is brought to its knees, hopefully without further violence.”

 

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With the meteoric rise of Islamic political movements in 2011, the issue of Sharia law has come to the forefront of a debate around the role of religion in governance. In his issue brief “Islam and Sharia Law,” Atlantic Council’s Nonresident Fellow Yussef Auf identifies and explains the challenges of incorporating Sharia law into the legal framework of modern governments, using the example of Egypt to enumerate the difficulties of codifying religious doctrine into law. Auf discusses how Sharia law attempts to regulate public life in three different domains: political governance, the Islamic legal system, and the economic system.

 


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Turkey has been the most engaged regional player in northern Syria and is the external actor most responsible for the emergence of the opposition to the Syrian regime. In “Turkey’s Syria Predicament,” authors Faysal Itani and Aaron Stein of the Atlantic Council's Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East examine Turkey’s involvement, its implications for Turkish domestic politics, its impact on the Syrian insurgency and course of the war, and the implications for US foreign policy.

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Political mistrust in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is high and this, in turn, has historically led to shortsighted economic policies and disjointed coordination. As India asserts itself as a global economic player, its leadership, specifically in SAARC, may lead to the political successes necessary to ensure broader connectivity and cooperation in the region. In this new issue brief, “Cooperation in South Asia: The Case for Redefining Alliances,” Dr. Manjari Chatterjee Miller and Dr. Bharath Gopalaswamy re-examine SAARC and point to realignments within SAARC that may boost the effectiveness of the often-times ineffective body.


 

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