What is the Bretton Woods 2.0 project?

The Bretton Woods Institutions were created in 1944 in the hopes that stronger international economic coordination would prevent another world war. Today, more than 80 years later, these institutions need to be revitalized and reimagined for a transformed global economy.

In an era of fierce geopolitical rivalries and unprecedented crises at a global scale, there is a profound need for reforms to the world’s monetary and financial system. But how exactly? What would a Bretton Woods system look like if it first emerged today?

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Marrakesh Annual Meetings Events

At the intersection of economics, finance, and foreign policy, the GeoEconomics Center is a translation hub with the goal of helping shape a better global economic future.

Issue Brief

Apr 16, 2024

Geoeconomic fragmentation and net-zero targets

By Shirin Hakim and Amin Mohseni-Cheraghlou

This report outlines how the Bretton Woods Institutions can mitigate the effects of growing geoeconomic fragmentation on global net-zero targets.

China Climate Change & Climate Action


Mar 28, 2024

Understanding the debate over IMF quota reform

By Hung Tran

The politics and mathematics of reform are tougher than they appear. A simple reform matching quotas to global economic weight will not be welcomed by many countries.

Africa China

Issue Brief

Jan 16, 2024

Developing an agenda for international financial institutions and central bank digital currency

By Greg Brownstein and Utsav Saksena

Is the emerging architecture appropriate, effective, and sufficient to manage the global transition to digital money? This report focuses on three domains: financial stability, development and financial inclusion, and global payment systems.

Digital Currencies Economy & Business

Issue Brief

Jan 16, 2024

Governance reform of the Bretton Woods Institutions

By Sienna Nordquist and Joel Christoph

The paper emphasizes the need for a governance reform roadmap at the IMF and World Bank focusing on quota reallocation, diplomatic efforts, and a commitment to diversity and democratic principles.

Economy & Business European Union

Issue Brief

Jan 16, 2024

Navigating subsidy reform at the WTO

By Sona Muzikarova and Sophia Busch

The legitimacy of the World Trade Organization is in question. The United States and its allies, and leaders in the organization, can better wield its potential to address global issues, specifically to reduce inefficiencies from fragmentation caused by subsidies.

Economy & Business Fiscal and Structural Reform


Nov 8, 2023

How digitalization can improve climate resilience in the Global South

By Camilla Valente and Saffiyah Coker

Digitalization offers a novel opportunity to build climate resilience if properly supported by the Bretton Woods Institutions.

Economy & Business International Financial Institutions


Oct 27, 2023

The status of labor rights in US trade policy

By Uma Menon

US trade policy can advance labor rights globally through stronger enforcement mechanisms and deeper multilateral collaboration with international organizations.

China Economy & Business
International Monetary Fund (IMF) Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva holds up a logo for the 2023 global policy agenda at the start of a news conference during the 2023 Spring Meetings of the World Bank Group and the International Monetary Fund in Washington, U.S., April 13, 2023. REUTERS/Elizabeth Frantz


Sep 19, 2023

How the IMF can make sovereign debt restructuring more effective

By Bruce Shen and Euel Kebebew

In light global debt crisis, the IMF plays crucial role in navigating complexities exacerbated by COVID-19, emphasizing transparency, incentives, and innovative financial tools for effective debt management.

China Economy & Business


Aug 23, 2023

What Brazil’s “multipolar” foreign policy means for the Bretton Woods institutions

By Jack Tapay-Cueva and David Dong

The BWIs must address the evolving attitudes of countries like Brazil to maintain their relevance in an ever-changing global order.

Brazil China


Jul 27, 2023

The G20 still hasn’t made a breakthrough on sovereign debt restructuring

By Hung Tran

The G20’s recent meeting failed to make progress on sovereign debt restructuring, disappointing low and middle-income countries. Zambia’s deal favored China’s preferences, revealing the challenges in establishing an equitable framework for debt relief.

Africa China