Publications

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The US-Danish relationship has proven itself remarkably flexible and effective throughout the post-Cold War era, and it is once again on the cusp of evolution with new challenges and opportunities. In the midst of the ongoing debate among NATO allies about burden-sharing, Denmark has consistently punched above its weight, contributing substantially to collective defense for a small country.

Indeed, at the start of 2019, the Danish government released a supplemental defense agreement committing Denmark to increase defense spending to 1.5 percent of GDP by 2023. The agreement demonstrates Denmark’s continued aspiration to contribute to the NATO Alliance and provides a needed influx of resources for defense and deterrence. These developments have the potential to profoundly affect a deep but often overlooked security relationship—that between the United States and Denmark.

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North Central Europe has become the central point of confrontation between the West and a revisionist Russia. Under President Vladimir Putin, Russia is determined to roll back the post-Cold War settlement and undermine the rules-based order that has kept Europe secure since the end of World War II. Moscow’s invasion and continued occupation of Georgian and Ukrainian territories, its military build-up in Russia’s Western Military District and Kaliningrad, and its “hybrid” warfare against Western societies have heightened instability in the region have made collective defense and deterrence an urgent mission for the United States and NATO.

The United States and NATO have taken significant steps since 2014 to enhance their force posture and respond to provocative Russian behavior. Despite these efforts, the allies in North Central Europe face a formidable and evolving adversary, and it is unlikely that Russian efforts to threaten and intimidate these nations will end in the near term. Now, ahead of NATO’s seventieth anniversary there is more that can be done to enhance the Alliance’s deterrence posture in the region. Against this backdrop, the government of Poland submitted a proposal earlier this year offering $2 billion to support a permanent US base in the country. While negotiations are ongoing, the issue is fundamentally about what the United States and NATO need to do to defend all of Europe.


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One word will define 2019 for Latin America (and the world): uncertainty.
Three new presidents in the region’s largest countries have jumpstarted their agendas. Juan Guaidó has assumed the interim presidency in Venezuela.
The USMCA awaits next steps in Congress. China continues to increase its regional economic footprint. And Central American migration continues, as push factors remain.

But one trend is certain: what happens in the Americas will increasingly have global ramifications.

Check out what the Adrienne Arsht Latin America Center is watching for 2019 and where we will lean in.


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In global discussions over climate change and the policy interventions needed to address it, the role of land use – including forests – is often overlooked. Given its unique role as both a potential source of emissions – as well as storage – for carbon, the land use sector may play a crucial role in the world’s success or failure in avoiding dangerous levels of climate change over this century. Nowhere is the pivotal role of land use more apparent than in tropical forests, which have gone from serving as sinks for global carbon emissions to being a source of them amid rampant deforestation. Southeast Asia has witnessed some of the world’s most significant tropical deforestation over the past several decades, and is currently a significant contributor to the roughly eight percent of total global greenhouse gas emissions that tropical deforestation represents.

In a new paper, “Does Money Grow on Trees?: Restoration Financing in Southeast Asia,” authors Prajwal Baral, Mikkel Larsen, and Matthew Archer provide a compelling analysis of the current state of tropical deforestation in Southeast Asia, including its drivers, extant efforts to mitigate it, barriers to effective reforestation finance, and possible new policy and market tools that could finally tip economic incentives towards reforestation rather than deforestation.

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Inauthentic activity originating from South Asian Facebook accounts artificially inflated the number of Facebook “likes” on social media content for and about the Government of the State of Oaxaca in México. The main beneficiary of the seemingly inauthentic activity is Alejandro Murat Hinojosa, Governor of the State of Oaxaca, in southern Mexico. Similar reactions can be seen on his official state government page and the Guelaguetza page — an account intended to promote the Guelaguetza festival, an annual traditional indigenous festival celebrated in the City of Oaxaca every July.

Read the full analysis on Medium.
Un número inusual de cuentas provenientes del sureste asiático están reaccionando a publicaciones hechas en las páginas oficiales de Facebook de autoridades e instituciones mexicanas. El principal beneficiario de esta actividad aparentemente inauténtica es Alejandro Murat Hinojosa, gobernador del estado de Oaxaca en el sur de México. Estas reacciones sospechosas se pueden encontrar en la página oficial de Murat del gobierno estatal y en la página de Guelaguetza, creada para promover el festival tradicional indígena de Guelaguetza, que se celebra en la ciudad de Oaxaca cada mes de julio.

Read the full analysis on FGV.

On October 28, Brazilians elected Jair Messias Bolsonaro as the next president of the republic, following a hyper-polarized and contentious election. The impetus, in part, for the frustration: Brazilians’ anger with rampant corruption.

In this Spotlight, we ask: What are the five most important areas Brazil’s new administration must focus on to effectively fight corruption?

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The H-1B visa program is one of more than twenty US guest worker programs, but it has arguably been in the spotlight more than any other. While the H1-B was originally intended to attract foreign workers to satisfy unmet demand for skilled labor, the current system undercuts opportunities for US workers and enables the exploitation of H-1B workers, many of whom who are underpaid, vulnerable to abuse, and frequently placed in poor working conditions. Adopting safeguards to ensure H-1B workers are provided fair working conditions and given greater employment rights would both improve the lives of visa holders and better protect US workers. In the Atlantic Council South Asia Center’s new report, Reforming US’ High-Skilled Guestworker Program, Dr. Ron Hira, Associate Professor at Howard University, and Dr. Bharath Gopalaswamy, Director of the Atlantic Council’s South Asia Center, explore the current flaws of the H-1B visa system and discuss potential policy measures for reform.

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10 questions for 2019: New presidents, new policies, new opportunities...What will be the biggest shock of the year?


JOIN US AND VOTE! How do you think some of the biggest questions of 2019 will unfold? Will President Bolsonaro find success with his economic plan? What is the fate of the Maduro regime this year? Will Latin America see more investment than ever from China? Will Latin artists take the music world by storm?
New Venezuela Infographic
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January 10 is both the start of Nicolás Maduro’s second term in office as well as a day to reinforce the lack of democratic conditions that led to his declaring victory and what is at stake. Today, one day earlier, the Adrienne Arsht Latin America Center releases infographic that depict the illegitimacy of this new term, Maduro’s first-term results, and options for the road ahead.

Although the 2018 electoral event was not recognized by the international community, Maduro has been unwavering in his quest for power. His authoritarianism and the schemes enriching high-level government officials and members of the military persist despite a ramp-up of international sanctions and growing internal and external pressure.

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